martedì 23 gennaio 2007

IMMAGINE CORPOREA NEI DISTURBI ALIMENTARI: TROPPO “REALISTICA”

Presso il Dipartimento di Psicologia Sperimentale dell'Università di Maastricht, la psicologa Anita Jansen e i suoi colleghi hanno condotto uno studio sull’immagine corporea percepita da persone sane e da donne affette da disturbi dell’alimentazione (anoressiche e bulimiche).
I risultati hanno mostrato che queste ultime sono altamente realiste nel valutare i propri pregi e difetti, e non possiedono invece una distorsione positiva che tutte le donne mostrerebbero nei confronti della propria immagine.
Nello studio pare ci siano stati distinguo metodologici confusi, ma che aprono la via a nuove ricerche.

Svolgimento: l’esperimento prevede che tutte le donne partecipanti giudichino, tramite un’istantanea, quali siano le parti del loro corpo che reputano migliori o peggiori. In seguito le stesse foto (ma private della faccia) vengono esaminate da due giurie composte ad hoc di altri soggetti. Nel caso delle donne con disturbi alimentari, le loro considerazioni e quelle degli esperti convergevano maggiormente rispetto alle donne sane.

La spiegazione risiede nel fatto che normalmente tendiamo ad applicare al nostro corpo una distorsione in positivo, per percepirci piacevoli per gli altri, mentre in caso di alterazioni alimentari insorgerebbe uno spietato senso critico (iper-realismo), il quale potrebbe essere la causa di deprivazioni alimentari e estenuante esercizio fisico.

Problemi: lo studio sembra aver confuso il concetto di bellezza (tra l’altro di difficilissima definizione) e invece il costrutto dell’identità. L’identità corporea va ben oltre l’apparenza fisica per investire la ruota emotiva, relazionale e sociale.
Le pazienti affette da sindromi legate al cibo, comprese quelle dello studio, soffrono infatti di disturbi nella sfera identitaria, e il forte legame che vivono tra corpo fisico-identità interiore è un sintomo principale ma non esclusivo.

In sintesi, a parere dell’autrice, la percezione esteriore di sé ha senso solo se confrontata (statisticamente) con altri indicatori del comportamento e della cognizione generale delle pazienti. Questo studio è riportabile entro l’arco delle ricerche che dimostrano come l’autostima di tali soggetti sia bassa, autostima che li porta a volersi migliorare a ogni costo. Sarebbero facili numerose altre conclusioni, ma in un campo così delicato, si ritiene che sia opportuno parlare solo con dati alla mano e poi, come nel caso di questo studio, riflettere sui risultati e proseguire a testare.
foto by debora972

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